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In the following figure, the transmitter $Tx$ sends a wideband modulated $RF$ signal via a coaxial  cable to the receiver $Rx$. The output impedance $Z_{T}$ of $Tx$, the characteristic impedance $Z_{0}$ of the cable and the input impedance $Z_{R}$ of $Rx$ are all real.       

           

 

Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the distortion of the received signal due to impedance mismatch?

  1. The signal gets distorted if $Z_{R}\neq Z_{0},$ irrespective of the value of $Z_{T}$
  2. The signal gets distored if $Z_{T}\neq Z_{0}$, irrespective of the value of $Z_{R}$
  3. Signal distortion implies impedance mismatch at both ends:$Z_{T}\neq Z_{0}$ and $Z_{R}\neq Z_{0}$
  4. Impedance mismatches do NOT result in signal distortion but reduce power transfer efficiency
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