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## Scientist B

### ELIGIBILITY:

B.E/ B.Tech/ DOEACC B-level OR AMIE/ GIETE OR MSc OR MCA OR ME/ M.Tech OR M.Phil Electronics, Electronics, and Communication, Computer Sciences, Communication, Computer and Networking Security, Computer Application, Software System, Information Technology, Information Technology Management, Informatics, Computer Management, Cyber law, Electronics, and Instrumentation.

 Dates Question Papers Answer Keys GO EC Links Exam Links 03 April 2022 2022: Set – A Answer Key 15 October 2017 2017: Set – B 22 July 2017 2017: Set – A 4 December 2016 2016: Set – A

## Scientific/Technical Assistant A

### ELIGIBILITY:

B.E/ B.Tech/ M.Sc./ MS/ MCA Electronics, Electronics and Communication, Electronics & Telecommunications, Computer Sciences, Computer and Networking Security, Software System, Information Technology, Informatics.

 Dates Question Papers Answer Keys GO EC Links Exam Links 15 October 2017 2017: Set – B

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## Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, solution of linear equations- existence and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stokes’ theorems.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability.

## Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Circuit analysis: Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity.
Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer.
Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform.
Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation.
Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications.
Discrete-time signals: DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals.

LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.

## Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors.

Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations.

P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell.

## Section 4: Analog Circuits

Diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers.
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response.
Current mirrors and differential amplifiers.
Op-amp circuits: Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators.

## Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number representations: binary, integer and floating-point- numbers.
Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders.
Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.
Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs.
Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM.
Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining.

## Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

## Section 7: Communications

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems.
Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers.
Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem.
Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER.

Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.

## Section 8: Electromagnetics

Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector.
Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth.

Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart.

Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.

## Section 9: General Aptitude

### Verbal Aptitude:

Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech.

Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context, Reading and comprehension, Narrative sequencing.

### Quantitative Aptitude:

Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables.

Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series.

Mensuration and geometry. Elementary statistics and probability.

### Analytical Aptitude:

Logic: Deduction and induction, Analogy, Numerical relations and reasoning.

### Spatial Aptitude:

Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping. Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions.

Previous GATE Electronics and Cmmunications Engineering Syllabus

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The question papers are of Code A unless specified otherwise.

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Please see here for the latest syllabus: GATE Electronics and Communications Engineering Syllabus for GATE 2023 (Updated 2020)

## Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's theorems.

Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula; Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem.
Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions – binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

## Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.

Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT),  DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

## Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

## Section 4: Analog Circuits

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op- amp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

## Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

## Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

## Section 7: Communications

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

## Section 8: Electromagnetics

Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.

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