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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 1
Consider a fair coin with probability of heads and tails equal to $1 / 2$. Moreover consider two dice, first $\mathrm{D}_{1}$ that has three faces numbered $1,3,5$ and second $\mathrm{D}_{2}$ that has three faces numbered $2,4,6$ ... rolled dice in the experiment. What is $\mathbb{E}[X]$ ? $\frac{7}{2}$ 4 3 $\frac{9}{2}$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 2
$\begin{array}{rlr}a^*=\max _{x, y} & x^2+y^2-8 x+7 \\ \text { s.t. } & x^2+y^2 \leq 1 \\ & y \geq 0\end{array}$ Then $a^{\star}$ is $16$ $14$ $12$ $10$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 3
Let \[ \mathcal{P}=\left\{(x, y): x+y \geq 1,2 x+y \geq 2, x+2 y \geq 2,(x-1)^{2}+(y-1)^{2} \leq 1\right\} . \] Compute \[ \min _{(x, y) \in \mathcal{P}} 2 x+3 y \] $2$ $3$ $4$ $6$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 4
Recall that the entropy (in bits) of a random variable $\mathrm{X}$ which takes values in $\mathbb{N}$ ... random variable which denotes the number of tosses made. What is the entropy of $\mathrm{X}$ in bits? $1$ $2$ $4$ Infinity None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 5
Let $\mathrm{B}$ denote the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, and $\mathrm{Q}$ a square of side length $2$. Let $\mathrm{K}$ be the set of all vectors $z$ such that for some $x \in \mathrm{B}$ and some $y \in \mathrm{Q}, z=x+y$. The area of $\mathrm{K}$ is $4+\pi$ $6+\pi$ $8+\pi$ $10+\pi$ $12+\pi$
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 6
An ant in the plane travels in a spiral such that its position $(x(t), y(t))$ at time $t \geq 0$ is $\left(e^{t} \cos t, e^{t} \sin t\right)$. At time $t=1$, find the real part of $\ln (x(t)+i y(t))$. $-2$ $1$ $0$ $-1$ $2$
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 7
Let $f(x)$ be a positive continuous function on the real line that is the density of a random variable $X$. The differential entropy of $X$ is defined to be $-\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) \ln f(x) d x$. In which case does $X$ have the least differential entropy? You may use these facts: The ... $f(x):=(1 / 4) e^{-|x| / 2}$. $f(x):=e^{-2|x|}$.
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 8
Suppose a bag contains 5 red balls, 3 blue balls, and 2 black balls. Balls are drawn without replacement until the bag is empty. Let $X_{i}$ be a random variable which takes value 1 if the $i$-th ball drawn is red, value 2 if that ball is blue, and 3 if it is black. Let the ... Only (i) and (ii) Only (i) and (iii) All of (i), (ii), and (iii) None of (i), (ii), or (iii)
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 9
Consider an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ with the property that each element of $A$ is non-negative and the sum of elements of each row is $1$ . Consider the following statements. 1. $1$ is an eigenvalue of $A$ 2. The magnitude of any eigenvalue of $A$ ... statements $1$ and $3$ are correct Only statements $2$ and $3$ are correct All statements $1,2$ , and $3$ are correct
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 10
Convolution between two functions $f(t)$ and $g(t)$ is defined as follows: \[ f(t) * g(t)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(\tau) g(t-\tau) d \tau \] Let $u(t)$ be the unit-step function, i.e., $u(t)=1$ for $t \geq 0$ and $u(t)=0$ for $t<0$. What is $f(t) * g(t)$ ... $\frac{1}{2}(\exp (-t)+\sin (t)-2 \cos (t)) u(t)$ $\frac{1}{2}(\exp (-t)-\sin (t)+2 \cos (t)) u(t)$
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 11
Consider the function \[ f(x)=x e^{|x|}+4 x^{2} \] for values of $x$ which lie in the interval $[-1,1]$. In this domain, suppose the function attains the minimum value at $x^{*}$. Which of the following is true? $-1 \leq x^{*}<-0.5$ $-0.5 \leq x^{*}<0$ $x^{*}=0$ $0<x^* \leq 0.5$ $0.5<x^* \leq 1$
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 12
Consider a disk $D$ of radius 1 centered at the origin. Let $X$ be a point uniformly distributed on $D$ and let the distance of $X$ from the origin be $R$. Let $A$ be the (random) area of the disk with radius $R$ centered at the origin. Then $\mathbb{E}[A]$ is $\frac{\pi}{3}$ $\frac{\pi}{6}$ $\frac{\pi}{4}$ $\frac{\pi}{2}$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 13
Let $X$ be a random variable which takes values $1$ and $-1$ with probability $1 / 2$ each. Suppose $Y=X+N$, where $N$ is a random variable independent of $X$ with the following probability density function (p.d.f.): \[ f_{N}(n)=\left\{\begin{array} ... $0$ $1 / 8$ $1 / 4$ $1 / 2$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 14
Suppose that $Z \sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$ is a Gaussian random variable with mean zero and variance $1$. Let $F(z) \equiv \mathbb{P}(Z \leq z)$ be the cumulative distribution function $\operatorname{(CDF)}$ of $Z$. Define a new random variable $Y$ as $Y=F(Z)$. This means that the ... of $\mathbb{E}[Y]$ is: $F(1)$ $1$ $\frac{1}{2}$ $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}}$ $\frac{\pi}{4}$
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TIFR ECE 2023 | Question: 15
Let $\left\{x_{n}\right\}_{n \geq 0}$ be a sequence of real numbers which satisfy \[ x_{n+1}\left(1+x_{n+1}\right) \leq x_{n}\left(1+x_{n}\right), \quad n \geq 0 . \] Choose the correct option from the ... is always bounded but does not necessarily converge. The sequence always converges to a non-zero limit. The sequence always converges to zero. None of the above.
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TIFR ECE 2015 | Question: 1
For a time-invariant system, the impulse response completely describes the system if the system is causal and non-linear non-causal and non-linear causal and linear All of the above None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2015 | Question: 3
Let $h(t)$ be the impulse response of an ideal low-pass filter with cut-off frequency $5 \mathrm{kHz} .\; \mathrm{Let}\; g[n]= h(n T)$, for integer $n$, be a sampled version of $h(t)$ ... -time filter with $g[n]$ as its unit impulse response is a low-pass filter high-pass filter band-pass filter band-stop filter all-pass filter
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TIFR ECE 2015 | Question: 4
The capacity of a certain additive white Gaussian noise channel of bandwidth $1 \mathrm{~MHz}$ is $\mathrm{known}$ to be $8 \text{ Mbps}$ when the average transmit power constraint is $50 \mathrm{~mW}$. Which of the following statements can we make about the capacity $C$ ... $C=8$ $8 < C < 16$ $C=16$ $C>16$ There is not enough information to determine $C$
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TIFR ECE 2015 | Question: 5
What is the following passive circuit? Low-pass filter High-pass filter Band-pass filter Band-stop filter All-pass filter
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TIFR ECE 2015 | Question: 12
Consider the following optimization problem \[ \max (2 x+3 y) \] subject to the following three constraints \[ \begin{aligned} x+y & \leq 5, \\ x+2 y & \leq 10, \text { and } \\ x & <3 . \end{aligned} \] Let $z^{*}$ be the ... $(x, y)$ that satisfy the above three constraints such that $2 x+3 y$ equals $z^{*}$.
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 4
A system accepts a sequence of real numbers $x[n]$ as input and outputs \[ y[n]=\left\{\begin{array}{ll} 0.5 x[n]-0.25 x[n-1], & n \text { even } \\ 0.75 x[n], & n \text { odd } \end{array}\right. \] The system is non-linear. non-causal. time-invariant. All of the above. None of the above.
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 9
Consider the following input $x(t)$ and output $y(t)$ pairs for two different systems. $x(t)=\sin (t), y(t)=\cos (t),$ $x(t)=t+\sin (t), y(t)=2 t+\sin (t-1).$ Which of these systems could possibly be linear and time invariant? Choose the most appropriate answer ... i) nor (ii). neither, but a system with $x(t)=\sin (2 t), y(t)=\sin (t) \cos (t) \operatorname{could~be.~}$
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 10
Consider the two quadrature amplitude modulation $\text{(QAM)}$ constellations below. Suppose that the channel has additive white Gaussian noise channel and no intersymbol interference. The constellation points are picked equally likely. Let $P\text{(QAM)}$ denote the ... .
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 11
It is known that the signal $x(t)$, where $t$ denotes time, belongs to the following class: \[ \left\{A \sin \left(2 \pi f_{0} t+\theta\right): f_{0}=1 \mathrm{~Hz}, 0 \leq A \leq 1,0<\theta \leq \pi\right\} \] If you ... how many samples are required to determine the signal? $1$ sample. $2$ samples. $1$ sample per second. $2$ samples per second. None of the above.
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 15
You are allotted a rectangular room of a fixed height. You have decided to paint the three walls and put wallpaper on the fourth one. Walls can be painted at a cost of Rs. $10$ per meter and the wall paper can be put at the rate of Rs $20$ per meter for that ... $200$ square meter room? $400 \times \sqrt{3} $ $400$ $400 \times \sqrt{2}$ $200 \times \sqrt{3}$ $500$
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TIFR ECE 2014 | Question: 19
Consider a $2^{k} \times N$ binary matrix $A=\left\{a_{\ell, k}\right\}, a_{\ell, k} \in\{0,1\}$. For rows $i$ and $j$, let the Hamming distance be $d_{i, j}=\sum_{\ell=1}^{N}\left|a_{i, \ell}-a_{j, \ell}\right|$. Let $D_{\min }=\min _{i, j} d_{i, j}$. ... $D_{\min } \leq N-k+1$. $D_{\min } \leq N-k$. $D_{\min } \leq N-k-1$. $D_{\min } \leq N-k-2$. None of the above.
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 1
The unit step response of a discrete-time, linear, time-invariant system is \[ y[n]=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} 0, & n<0 \\ 1, & n \geq 0 \text { and } n \text { even } \\ -1, & n \geq 0 \text { and } ... the system is bounded-input, bounded-output $\text{(BIBO)}$ stable there is not enough information to determine $\text{(BIBO)}$ stability none of the above
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 2
The output $\{y(n)\}$ of a discrete time system with input $\{x(n)\}$ is given by \[ y(n)=\sum_{k=0}^{N-1} a^{k} x(n-k) . \] The difference equation for the inverse system is given by $y(n)=x(n)-a x(n-1)$ ... $(a)$ above, otherwise the inverse does not exist If $|a|<1$, then the answer is $(b)$ above, otherwise the inverse does not exist None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 3
$X$ and $Y$ are jointly Gaussian random variables with zero mean. A constant-pdf contour is where the joint density function takes on the same value. If the constant-pdf contours of $X, Y$ are as shown above, which of the following could their covariance matrix $\mathbf{K}$ ... $\mathbf{K}=\left[\begin{array}{cc}1 & -0.5 \\ -0.5 & 2\end{array}\right]$
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 5
Let $x(n)=\sin (2 \pi k n / N), n=0,1, \ldots, N-1$, where $2 k \neq N$ and $0<k \leq N-1$. Then the circular convolution of $\{x(n)\}$ with itself is $N \cos (4 \pi k n / N)$ $N \sin (4 \pi k n / N)$ $-N \cos (2 \pi k n / N) / 2$ $-N \sin (2 \pi k n / N) / 2$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 6
The two-dimensional Fourier transform of a function $f(t, s)$ is given by \[ F(\omega, \theta)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(t, s) \exp (-j \omega t) \exp (-j \theta s) d t d s . \] Let $\delta(t)$ be the delta function and let $u(t)=0$ ... $\exp (-(t+s)) u(t+s)$ $\exp (-t) u(t) \delta(s)$ $\exp (-t) \delta(t+s)$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 7
The $Z$-transform of $\{x(n)\}$ is defined as $X(z)=\sum_{n} x(n) z^{-n}$ (for those $z$ for which the series converges). Let $u(n)=1$ for $n \geq 0$ and $u(n)=0$ for $n<0$. The inverse $Z$-transform of $X(z)=$ ... is (a), otherwise the inverse is not well-defined If $|a|<1$, then the answer is (b), otherwise the inverse is not well-defined None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 8
The following circuit with an ideal operational amplifier is A low pass filter A high pass filter A bandpass filter A bandstop filter An all pass amplifier
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TIFR ECE 2013 | Question: 15
Consider a sequence of non-negative numbers $\left\{x_{n}: n=1,2, \ldots\right\}$. Which of the following statements cannot be true? $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} x_{n}=\infty$ but $x_{n}$ decreases to zero as $n$ increases. $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} x_{n}<\infty$ ... and each $x_{n} \leq 1 / n^{2}$. $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} x_{n}<\infty$ and each $x_{n}>x_{n+1}$.
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 3
A sequence of numbers $\left(x_{n}: n=1,2,3, \ldots\right)$ is said to have a limit $x$, if given any number $\epsilon>0$, there exists an integer $n_{\epsilon}$ ... $6$ and has a limit that equals $6$ . None of the above statements are true.
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 4
The signal $x_{n}=0$ for $n<0$ and $x_{n}=a^{n} / n$ ! for $n \geq 0$. Its $z$-transform $X(z)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x_{n} z^{-n}$ is $1 /\left(z^{-1}-a\right)$, region of convergence $\text{(ROC)}$: $|z| \leq 1 / a$ ... $|z|>a$ Item $(a)$ if $a>1$, Item $(b)$ if $a<1$ $\exp \left(a z^{-1}\right)$, $\text{ROC}$: entire complex plane.
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 5
Consider a periodic square wave $f(t)$ with a period of $1$ second such that $f(t)=1$ for $t \in[0,1 / 2)$ and $f(t)=-1$ for $t \in[1 / 2,1)$. It is passed through an ideal low-pass filter with cutoff at $2 \mathrm{~Hz}$. Then the output is $\sin (2 \pi t)$ ... $\sin (2 \pi t)-\cos (2 \pi t)$ None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 6
Let $u(t)$ be the unit step function that takes value $1$ for $t \geq 0$ and is zero otherwise. Let $f(t)=e^{-t} u(t)$ and $g(t)=u(t) u(1-t)$. Then the convolution of $f(t)$ and $g(t)$ is $(e-1) e^{-t} u(t)$ $1-e^{-t}$ for $0 \leq t \leq 1,(e-1) e^{-t}$ for $t \geq 1$ and zero otherwise $t e^{-t} u(t)$ The convolution integral is not well defined None of the above
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 7
A linear time-invariant system has a transfer function $H(s)=1 /(1+s)$. If the input to the system is $\cos (t)$, the output is $\left(e^{j t}+e^{-j t}\right) / 2$ where $j=\sqrt{-1}$ $\cos (t) / 2$ $(\cos (t)+\sin (t)) / 2 \sqrt{ }$ $\sin (t) / 2$. The system is unstable and the output is not well-defined.
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TIFR ECE 2012 | Question: 8
The input to a series $\text{RLC}$ circuit is a sinusoidal voltage source and the output is the current in the circuit. Which of the following is true about the magnitude frequency response of this system? Dependending on the values of $\text{R, L}$ ... $1 /(2 \pi \sqrt{\text{LC}})$.
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